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Home arrow Sites of interest arrow  Al-Khidr arrow Stratigraphy
Stratigraphy of Al-Khidr site

Lucia Benediková and Peter Barta

At the moment following general stratigraphy can be suggested for the site on the basis of excavation on the shore of Al-Khidr bay (KH-1 mound):

  • Al-Khidr I: Middle - Late Islamic Period (disturbances at the site caused by planting and stone mining activities);
  • Al-Khidr II: 1st cent. BC - 1st cent. AD (pit in 22T);
  • Al-Khidr IIIa: Late Early Dilmun - Middle Dilmun Period (last evidenced additions to the Bronze Age buildings unearthed in the northern and central part of the excavated area);
  • Al-Khidr IIIb: Early Dilmun (main horizon of the remains, solid architectures, the first layer of the rectangular stone buildings unearthed over whole KH-1 excavated mound);
  • Al-Khidr IIIc/IV: Early Dilmun (shelly layers below architectural remains documented over whole KH-1 mound). It needs to be proved, however, whether this layer originated independently from the main layer with architectures (then it represents Al-Khidr IV) or it can be related to the building activities during Al-Khidr III (then Al-Khidr IIIc or even IIIb);
  • Al-Khidr IV/V: Early Dilmun (the lowest layers represented by light stone structures unearthed over whole KH-1 mound).

For the Bronze Age, two or three main occupation horizons can be distinguished at present. The stratigraphically youngest horizon has yielded solid stone architecture with rectangle-like ground-plans, with apparent evidence of refurbishment and rebuilding. In contrast, the oldest horizon's structures are of irregular layout. Alongside the two types of stone structures, stratigraphically between them, conspicuous shell-rich strata occur. Depending on their location, these may be interpreted as dump/activity areas or insulation/levelling layers below the stone buildings. The uncovered evidence might provide an insight into the spatial organization of the settlement (habitation and activity/dumping areas).


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Click on a map to see all known archaeological sites on Failaka island from the Bronze Age up to the present day.